The Matrix model of treatment is a template for treating individuals addicted to stimulants in outpatient settings. The treatment plan includes several evidence-based therapies, including cognitive behavioral therapy, motivational interviewing and 12-step facilitation therapy.
The Matrix model is a standard treatment plan for individuals addicted to stimulants such as cocaine, crystal meth or amphetamine-based prescription drugs. It was developed in the 1980s at an outpatient treatment center in Los Angeles called the Matrix Institute.
The plan calls for 16 weeks of intensive outpatient treatment that includes daily appointments and meetings. It also provides a template for a less intensive outpatient aftercare plan that’s composed of self-help and social support group meetings.
The main components of the Matrix model are divided into five categories:
The model has been studied extensively. Most research shows that the approach can help people discontinue stimulant use. Some studies have also found that the Matrix model is more effective than other treatment approaches, according to a white paper by the Matrix Institute.
|Intensive Treatment||Intensive Treatment||Continuing Care|
|Weeks 1-4||Weeks 5-16||Weeks 13-48|
|Monday||Early recovery skills and relapse prevention||Relapse prevention||Nothing scheduled|
|Tuesday||12-step or self-help group meetings||12-step or self-help group meetings||12-step or self-help group meetings|
|Wednesday||Family education||Family education or social support||Social support|
|Thursday||12-step or self-help group meetings||12-step or self-help group meetings||12-step or self-help group meetings|
|Friday||Early recovery skills and relapse prevention||Relapse prevention||Nothing scheduled|
|Saturday and Sunday||12-step or self-help group meetings||12-step or self-help group meetings||12-step or self-help group meetings|
In addition to therapy, drug tests are a key component of the Matrix model. The tests are conducted once each week as an accountability measure. A positive urine test does not disqualify a participant from treatment. It serves as a discussion point during therapy.
The relationship between therapists and patients is a key component of the Matrix model. A patient’s primary therapist conducts individual and group therapy sessions throughout treatment.
Therapists develop professional relationships with clients during individual sessions. The sessions serve as both goal planning and check-in opportunities. Family members can also participate in treatment planning if appropriate. Individual therapy sessions are held during:
During the first session, the therapist and patient establish treatment goals. During the following sessions, the duo talks about the patient’s progress, challenges and successes. Additional individual sessions can be added if a crisis occurs or if goals need to be adjusted.
The early recovery skills group sessions teach patients about the basics of recovery, such as how to reduce cravings, how to plan time, why it’s important to stop using other addictive substances and how to connect with community resources.
The group usually meets twice per week during the first month of a patient’s recovery. Individuals who need additional help understanding the basics of recovery can attend extra sessions later in the recovery process.
Groups usually comprise 10 people who are in recovery. They’re led by a therapist and a patient who has a history of sobriety. The small group setting allows the therapist to spend one-on-one time with each patient.
Relapse prevention group sessions are a foundational component of the Matrix model of substance abuse treatment. They’re held at the beginning and end of each week throughout the entire treatment plan.
The meetings use the following format:
Each session is designed around a central topic, such as shame, motivation, triggers and boredom. Participants discuss their experiences and provide advice in a facilitated forum.
Educational sessions for families are held weekly during the first three months of treatment, and a total of 12 family sessions are held throughout the 16-week program. PowerPoint presentations, panels and facilitated forums teach patients and family members about a variety of topics, including:
The classes teach family members how to support their loved one during and after treatment. They also help build bonds among family members and increase treatment retention rates.
Social support sessions are the foundation of the continuing care phase of the Matrix model. They’re introduced during weeks 13 to 16 of intensive outpatient treatment, and they’re continued for 36 weeks during continuing care.
The sessions help patients relearn social skills. Clients with many weeks of sustained recovery assist clients who are preparing to finish intensive outpatient treatment. As the latter patients maintain progress through the therapy, they turn into role models who help others who are new to the sessions.
A therapist leads the social support sessions, but clients are sometimes divided into small groups to discuss specific topics, such as rejection, isolation, patience and intimacy.
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Several overarching principles guide Matrix model therapies. Each principle is backed by psychological research on substance use disorders, treatment and recovery.
Matrix model principles include:
The principles guide therapists, clients and other members of the treatment team throughout the treatment and aftercare plans.
Several government agencies and nonprofit organizations endorse the Matrix model for people with stimulant use disorders. More than 42 percent of rehab facilities across the United States use the Matrix model, according to the 2016 National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services.
The first studies on the Matrix model contained problematic designs that prevented researchers from drawing firm conclusions. However, they did prove that the concept of the model worked.
In a 1986 study published in NIDA Research Monograph, researchers found that cocaine users who participated in the Matrix model had lower relapse rates than patients treated in a hospital setting. However, the study had a small sample size that may have influenced the results.
In the 1990s, researchers conducted a two-year study involving 100 participants addicted to cocaine. Once again, the study’s results supported the effectiveness of the Matrix model, but the design of the study prevented researchers from proving that the approach was effective. The study was published in the Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment in 1995.
Another study, published in 2002 in the Archives of General Psychiatry, found evidence that the Matrix model could be used for people addicted to methamphetamine. This study’s design also inhibited firm conclusions from being developed.
As of 2014, the Methamphetamine Treatment Project was the largest randomized clinical trial studying treatment approaches for methamphetamine addiction. A randomized clinical trial is one of the most reliable research methods.
The trial ran for 18 months between 1999 and 2001. It included 978 participants who were randomly assigned treatment with the Matrix model or treatment as usual. Treatment as usual included a variety of different outpatient treatments.
The researchers concluded that Matrix model participants had higher retention rates in treatment and were more likely to pass urine tests during treatment. But Matrix model participants had similar success rates to those receiving the other treatments during long-term follow-up.
The Matrix model is an effective approach for treating people addicted to cocaine, crystal meth and other stimulants. It involves several evidence-based treatment approaches that are incorporated in a proven, cost-effective treatment program.