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Sober Living Homes

Sober living homes are safe, substance-free living environments for individuals in recovery. Sober houses require residents to abstain from alcohol and drug use and usually offer a variety of services, amenities and a wealth of peer support.

After treatment, many individuals return to high-risk environments. Your friends or family members may tempt you with alcohol or other drugs by consuming them in front of you. Stress from work can build up. Seclusion can become appealing.


Environmental triggers and isolation are big reasons why relapse rates are high.

You need somewhere safe you can go after treatment, a place free of triggers and surrounded by social support.

What are Sober Living Homes and Oxford Houses?

The number of Oxford Houses in the country grew by 20 percent to 2,000 in the last three years.

Sober living homes are structured, safe and substance-free living environments for individuals in recovery. The good ones employ compassionate staff and enforce strict rules that support the recovery process. The homes comprise residents pursuing health, wellness and substance-free lives. Along those same lines, Oxford Houses are peer-run sober living homes.

Sober living homes are commonly referred to as sober houses, recovery homes, halfway houses or recovery residences.

There were almost 2,000 recovery residences housing more than 25,000 residents in the National Alliance for Recovery Residences’ 2012 directory. Those numbers likely underestimate the total number of residences and residents because there is no systematic inventory of sober living homes in the U.S.

Media reports indicate that the number of sober houses is growing rapidly as a result of the ongoing drug abuse epidemic. For example, the number of Oxford Houses in the country grew by 20 percent to 2,000 in the last three years.

Numerous studies have shown that most people who live in sober homes after attending treatment have low rates of relapse and are able to live productive lives. Sober living homes are realistic, cost-effective living environments for people in recovery.

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Types of Sober Living Homes

The services, rent, rules and living conditions at sober living homes vary from place to place. Some homes are part of a behavioral health care system where residents live next to a rehab clinic, participate in outpatient therapy and have access to the clinic’s recreational activities. Other homes are run completely by residents with no oversight.

The National Alliance for Recovery Residences is one of the largest associations of sober living homes in the United States. It developed four levels of support that can be used to characterize most sober living homes.

Characteristics of Recovery Residence Levels of Support

Level I (Peer-Run)

  • Administration: Democratically run, House manual
  • Services: Drug screening, House meetings, Self-help groups encouraged
  • Residence: Single-family
  • Staff: No paid staff

Level II (Monitored)

  • Administration: House manager, Written policy and procedures
  • Services: Drug screening, House meetings, Self-help groups or treatment mandatory
  • Residence: Single-family or apartment-style
  • Staff: At least one paid staff member

Level III (Supervised)

  • Administration: Hierarchy, Administrative oversight
  • Services: Drug screening, House meetings, Self-help groups or treatment mandatory, Life skills emphasized
  • Residence: Multiple types
  • Staff: Facility manager, Certified staff or case manager

Level IV (Service Provider)

  • Administration: Overseen hierarchy, Clinical supervision
  • Services: Drug screening, House meetings, Self-help groups or treatment mandatory, In-house services and programming
  • Residence: Multiple types, Possibly institutional environment
  • Staff: Facility manager, Credentialed staff

Source: National Alliance for Recovery Residences

The concept of sober living homes has been around since the 1830s, when the YMCA and Salvation Army developed dry hotels or dry lodging houses. The expansion of Alcoholics Anonymous accelerated the spread of sober living homes in the mid-1950s.

Today, the homes are mostly unregulated, but some homes are part of larger organizations such as Oxford Houses, the Florida Association of Recovery Residences or the New Jersey Alliance of Recovery Residences.

Oxford Houses are the best examples of Level I sober living homes. A number of sober living homes affiliated with the California Association of Addiction and Recovery Resources are good examples of Level II residences. Residential therapeutic communities and inpatient residential treatment programs exemplify level III and IV residences, respectively.

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Oxford House

Oxford Houses are the most common sober living homes in the United States. The peer-run houses emphasize peer support as an essential component of recovery, and all rent goes to maintaining the house.

There is no in-house treatment or requirement to attend a specific recovery program, but 12-step participation is popular in Oxford Houses. A new house member must be interviewed by current residents and must receive an 80 percent vote of approval to be accepted. Residents pay rent, do chores and elect officers every six months.

Quaint Halfway House

Halfway Houses

Halfway houses are technically sober living environments, but there are many differences between halfway houses for people transitioning out of incarceration and sober homes for people in recovery from addiction.

Sober living homes are maintained through fees, and residents can usually stay as long as they want. Unlike halfway houses, sober homes are not monitored by state agencies. Most importantly, the goal of sober living homes is to monitor and improve health, safety and wellness using peer support. The goal of many halfway houses for criminals is to reduce recidivism using supervision.

Next Step Village

Our sober living environments offer you the ability to transition from inpatient rehabilitation to recovery. Next Step Village offers you continued support and aftercare services to help you maintain your sobriety and prevent relapse.

Learn More

Who Can Stay at a Sober
Living Home

In general, individuals with a history of vagrancy, incarceration or inadequate social support are at high risk of relapse. But sober living homes can be beneficial for anyone in recovery who does not have a supportive, substance-free environment to go home to.

Sober living homes usually house only same-sex residents and require residents to complete either a detox program or an inpatient rehab program before moving in. Additionally, residents must agree to a number of rules when they move in

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Sober Living Home & Oxford House Rules

Rules vary depending on each home or accrediting organization, but most sober living homes have several rules in common. Typical sober living home rules include:

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Abstention from alcohol or other drugs.
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Compliance with random urine tests.
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Compliance with established curfews.
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Participation in house meetings.
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Completion of household chores.
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Participation in outpatient treatment or community support groups.
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Abstention from intimate relationships with other residents.
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No drug paraphernalia or items promoting drug use.
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No violence, threats or offensive language.
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Paying rent on time.

Residents usually sign a contract or written agreement outlining all of the rules and regulations of living at the sober living home. Sober living homes are known for strictly enforcing rules, and violations usually result in eviction.

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What Happens if You Relapse
in a Sober Living Home?

Although relapse is a common part of the recovery process, it threatens the recovery of all residents. Thus, individuals who relapse are usually removed from the sober living home as soon as possible. Many sober living homes refer the resident to a drug addiction rehab center or offer another form of treatment.

In NARR homes, the goal is to protect the health of all residents, not to punish the resident experiencing relapse. In Oxford Houses, individuals who relapse cannot return until they complete a 28-day rehab program or complete treatment and demonstrate an ability to continually attend support group meetings.

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Group Therapy, vocational Training, life skills, relapse prevention counseling, educational programming, family counseling, and 12-step Meetings.

Services and Amenities

Most residents at sober living homes have a private or semiprivate room. The homes usually include a kitchen, common areas and laundry accommodations.

Some sober living homes have exercise equipment, fitness areas, recreational space, pools and cookout areas. The homes may also be near an outpatient treatment center or on the campus of residential rehab facility. In those homes, residents may have access to several services:

In other homes, counselors or case managers visit on a regular basis to provide in-home services. Former residents and treatment alumni may visit regularly to provide additional guidance and support.

Typical Day at a Sober Living Home

An average day at a sober living home usually includes group breakfasts, lunches and dinners. Most homes have household meetings nightly, and residents often attend treatment, support group meetings or other wellness activities together.

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Residents are usually expected to get up between 6 a.m. and 8 a.m. In most houses, residents eat breakfast together at a set time.
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Residents are usually required to find a job, attend classes or receive some other kind of vocational training.
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If the house provides transportation, residents will meet at a set time to attend school, work or outpatient treatment.
After school, work or treatment, residents do chores, laundry and other housework.
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A house meeting to discuss personal disputes, household tasks and other daily activities may occur before or after dinner.
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At night, residents usually attend support group meetings together.
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Free time may occur after dinner until a set curfew. Residents often watch TV, read, exercise or journal during free time.

The daily schedule at sober living homes is heavily influenced by the residents’ current stage of recovery. Some homes are heavily structured, with strict schedules and consistent eating and meeting times. Other homes have more free time, and residents are more independent.

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How Much Do Sober Living Homes Cost?

In general, sober living homes cost as much as an average apartment. Depending on the city, neighborhood and services offered, rent can range from $300 to $2,000 per month. Some sober homes do not require residents to pay utility bills, but utilities may be rationed to avoid waste.

Recovery residences are less expensive than living at a rehabilitation facility or detox center because fewer services are offered. But many sober homes require residents to attend support group meetings or participate in 12-step programs or outpatient treatment, which may be an additional cost for residents to consider.

There are a variety of ways to pay rent at sober living homes. Most residents find a job to pay out of pocket or set up a payment plan with the home. Some homes accept private insurance, government funding or Medicaid. The amount of insurance coverage depends on the plan. Some residents also pay for sober housing through scholarships, loans or credit cards.

How Long Can I Stay at a Sober
Living Home?

Several factors determine length of stay, such as the severity of the addiction, a person’s history of substance abuse, their recovery progress, ability to follow rules and ability to pay rent.

Residents may first move into homes with high levels of support and then transition to homes with lower levels of support. A 2006 study published in the American Journal of Public Health found that most Oxford House residents stayed more than a year, but some residents stayed more than three years.

Another study published in the American Journal of Community Psychology found that 62 percent of residents either remained at the house or left on good terms two years after moving in.

If a resident is paying through insurance or a scholarship, those factors may affect his or her length of stay. Some insurance providers require residents to reapply for funding every three months, and many government plans limit funding to 90 days per year. After that, residents have to find alternative ways to pay rent.

How Effective Are Sober Living

Studies indicate that living in sober homes after inpatient treatment increases recovery rates, financial strength and overall stability.

An American Journal of Public Health study compared individuals who lived in a sober living home to those who only received outpatient treatment or attended self-help groups.

After two years, those who resided in a sober living home:

Another study published in the Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment found sober living home residents experienced improvements in arrest rates, alcohol and drug use rates, and employment rates. The authors found evidence that 12-step program attendance and social support systems were key components of recovery for residents.

Thus, sober living homes appear to be an effective component of the recovery process. Researchers have also compared sober living environments to one another.

A study published in Addiction Research and Theory compared free-standing sober living houses to houses associated with an outpatient treatment program. Residents in both homes improved in several key areas: employment, legal problems, alcohol use and drug use. Thus, both options can aid in a person’s recovery.

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Choosing a Sober Living Home

Sober living homes don’t require accreditation, a state license or oversight from a behavioral health care provider. The lack of regulation has led to the creation of homes that lack access to support services or strict rules.

In response, policymakers have attempted to create laws allowing states to regulate sober living homes.

In Florida, the Legislature passed a law requiring homes that accept patients from state-funded rehab centers to be state-certified, and Massachusetts has established a voluntary certification process. New Jersey requires sober living homes to notify a resident’s emergency contact if he or she is evicted.

However, fair housing and equal opportunity laws designed to prevent discrimination have made complete regulation difficult.

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Additionally, you should get to know the people you’ll be living with. Try to determine their optimism, willingness to offer support and motivation for remaining sober. In Oxford Houses, residents interview potential residents. That can be a good time to get to know future roommates and decide whether that particular house is best for you.

Sober living homes are an effective resource for individuals who have completed treatment and are ready to begin their lives in recovery. They provide a balance of supervision and independence that allows people to transition back to work, school and daily life.

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